• Bayu Eko Yulianto University of Indonesia


This paper describes the ineffectiveness of South Korea’s confidence-building measures towards North Korea during the reign of Kim Dae Jung and Roh Moo Hyun through the sunshine policy. The previous studies on the sunshine policy only discussed the efforts made by the South Korean government through the sunshine policy and America's influence on the implementation in general. The studies are divided into three major categories namely: domestic politics, political economy, and regional studies, but none has discussed the causes of the ineffectiveness of the sunshine policy. By using confidence-building measures as an analytical framework, this paper will explain the variables in confidence-building measures that cause sunshine policies to be ineffective. The main argument of this paper is that there are 2 factors that cause the sunshine policy to be ineffective, namely the influence of America and the absence of political will from North Korea to achieve the goal of confidence-building measures through sunshine policy.


Beck, Peter M and Reader, Nicholas. (2005) “Facilitating Reform in North Korea: The Role of Regional Actors and NGOs”, Asian Perspective, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 31-49.
Benjamin L. Self and Ranjeet K. Singh. (1999) “Introduction” in Investigating Confidence-Building Measures in the Asia–Pacific Region, The Henry L. Stimson Center.
Cha, Victor D and Kang, David C. (2004) “The Debate over North Korea”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 119, No. 2 (Summer), pp. 229-254.
Choi, HyunSoo. (2015, 29 Juni) “[제2 연평해전 13주년] 선제 공격한 北 피해 더 커… ‘패전’→ ‘승전’ 재평가돼야”, Kukmin Ilbo.
Available at: (Accessed: 8 Juni 2020).
Department of Political and Security Council Affairs United Nations Centre for Disarmament Report of the Secretary-General (1982) Comprehensive Study on Confidence-building Measures (Online). Available at: (Accessed: 5 Juni 2020).
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (2020) (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 26 April 2020).
Foley, James A. (2003) “"Sunshine" or Showers for Korea's Divided Families?,” World Affairs, Vol. 165, No. 4 (SPRING), pp. 179-184.
Fukushima, Akiko. (2000) Multilateral Confidence Building Measures in Northeast Asia: Receding or Emerging?”, Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, D.C.
Haggard, Stephan and Noland, Marcus. (2008) “North Korea in 2007: Shuffling in from the Cold”, Asian Survey, Vol. 48, No. 1 (January/February), pp. 107-115.
Han, Y. (2002) “The Sunshine Policy and Security on the Korean Peninsula: A Critical Assessment and Prospects”. Asian Perspective, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp 37-69.
Heo, Uk and Chong, MinHyun. (2001) “An Analysis of South Korea’s Policy Toward North Korea”, Pacific Focus, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring), pp. 89-102.
Higgins, Holly. (2004) “Applying Confidence-Building Measures in a Regional Context,” ISIS Publications Vol. 21 No. 15.
Hwang, DaeIl. (1999, 3 Juli) “연평해전' 해군장병 7명 특진”, Yonhap News.
Available at: (Accessed: 8 Juni 2020)
Hwang, JiHwan. (2013) “The Two Koreas after U.S. Unipolarity: In Search of a New North Korea Policy”, Journal of International and Area Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 77-88.
Kementerian Luar Negeri Korea Selatan. (2020) “North Korea Nuclear Negotiations”,
Available at: (Accessed: 8 Juni 2020)
Kementerian Unifikasi Korea Selatan. (2020) “Inter-Korean Conference Information”
Available at:
Kim, I. (2014) “Why No Spillover Effect Between The Two Koreas?”, The Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 28 No.1, pp. 33-52.
Kudlacova, Lenka. (2014) “South Korean Civil Society Organizations as Confidence-Builders? The Experience with South Korean Civil Society Groupings in the Republic of Korea and the DPRK”, Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 33-64.
“Laundering charge hits Macau bank”, (2005, 19 September). BBC News (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 5 Juni 2020)
Lee, JungHoon and Moon, ChungIn. (2003) “The North Korean Nuclear Crisis Revisited: The Case for a Negotiated Settlement”, Security Dialogue Vol. 34, No. 2 (June), pp. 136-151.
Mason , Simon J. A. and Matthias Siegfried. (2013) "Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) in Peace Processes", In: Managing Peace Processes: Process related questions. A handbook for AU practitioners, Volume 1, African Union and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue
Mihm, S. (2006, 23 Juli) “No Ordinary Counterfeit”, The New York Time Magazine (Online)
Available at : (Accessed : 5 Juni 2020)
Miryanti, R., & Pridarita, G. (2020). PERUBAHAN RESPON TIONGKOK TERHADAP UJI COBA NUKLIR KOREA UTARA (2013-2018). Jurnal Dinamika Global, Vol 5 No. 02, pp. 189-218.
Available at : (Accessed: 27 April 2021)
Moon, ChungIn. (2001) “The Kim Dae Jung Government's Peace Policy Toward North Korea”, Asian Perspective, Vol. 25, No. 2, Special Issue on Prospects for New Inter-Korean Relations, pp. 177-198.
Moon, ChungIn and Lee, SangKeun. (2009) “Military Spending and The Arms Race on The Korean Peninsula”, Asian Perspective, Vol. 33, No. 4, Special issue on Arms Race in Northeast Asia, pp. 69-99.
Mun, SukAhn. (2001) “What Is the Root Cause of the North Korean Nuclear Program?”, Asian Affairs: An American Review, Vol. 38, No. 4 (October-December), pp. 175-187.
Olsen, Edward A. (2003) “A Korean Solution To The United State’s Korean Problems”, The Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Fall/Winter), pp. 215-240.
Paik, H. (2002) “Assessment of The Sunshine Policy: A Korean Perspective”, Asian Perspective, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 13-35.
Pemerintah Britania Raya (2004), Appendix 3 Understanding “Political Will” (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 11 Maret 2020)
Post, L. A., Raile, A. N. W., & Raile, E. D. (2010) ”Defining Political Will”, Politics & Policy, Vol. 38 No. 4.
Ryu, GilJae. (2009) ”Engagement policy yang berprinsip dalam mengembangkan hubungan inter-Korea", National Assembly Secretariat.
Saeputra, R. (2019) “Pendekatan Konsep Harmoni dalam Manajemen Konflik oleh Jepang dalam Isu Sengketa Senkaku/Diaoyu dengan Tiongkok”, Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, Vol. 20 No.2, pp. 160-199. doi:
Sulaiman, V. (2020) “China’s Policy in Refusing North Korea Nuclear Proliferation”, Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 100-124. doi:
Veronica, N. (2015) “Rivalitas Cina dan Jepang dalam Institusi Regional Asia Timur”, Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.19-33. doi:
Yu, SeongWoon. (2014, 23 November) “1999년 1차 연평해전 때 북한 사상자 130여명 달해" 주장 제기”, JoongAng Ilbo (Online).
Available at: (Accessed: 8 Juni 2020)
“금강산: 승용차 몰고 갔던 '금강산 관광'... 시설 철거 위기까지”. (2019, 23 Oktober) BBC Korea (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 26 April 2020)
“북, 핵무기제조ㆍ보유 공식선언”. (2005, 10 Februari) The Hankyoreh (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 8 Juni 2020)
“우리 민족끼리 나아가는 길에 통일의 밝은 미래가 있다”, (2007, 21 Agustus), Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland diakses (Online)
Available at: (Accessed: 4 Mei 2020)
How to Cite